C. Zhang, C.Y. Wen, L.X. Yan
In order to analyze the impact of different degrees of take-over frequency (high take-over frequency, medium take-over frequency, and low take-over frequency) on take-over performance in autonomous driving in urban road environments, an urban road scene was designed based on the CARLA driving simulation platform and an automated driving (SEA L3) take-over simulation test was carried out. The take-over request time is set to 5s, non-driving related task (NDRT) was watching videos, a total of 15 participants were recruited in the experiment (9 males and 6 females), and the average age of the participants was 22.07 years (SD 1.69 years). Participants were required to perform non-driving related tasks during the automated driving stage all the time, and after receiving the prompt of take-over request, press the mode switching button, then take emergency avoidance operations. Results suggest that as the frequency of takeovers increases, the distance between the head and the obstacle and the minimum time-to-collision (TTC) increase, and the time to complete the task decreases. The accident rates of male drivers in three frequency takeover tests are higher than those of female drivers. Overall, the driving performance of female drivers is higher than that of male. High and medium take-over frequency have significant preventive effects on vehicle collisions, and almost all collision incidents occur at low take-over frequency.
Keywords: automated driving; driving simulation; take-over; driving behavior; experimental research; take-over frequency