X. Zhao, Y. Ju, C. Zhang, Z. Fan, P. Tao
Traffic control devices (TCDs) play an important role in ensuring tunnel safety and efficiency in China, but they lack effective evaluation methods and consideration of human factors in practical application. In this study, a driving simulator experiment was conducted to investigate the comprehensive effectiveness of TCDs. Six alternatives, including artificial skylight, tunnel mural, tunnel retro-reflective arch (white), tunnel retro-reflective arch (color), tunnel delineation and integrated aesthetic and delineation design were designed and compared with the basic tunnel. A total of 33 drivers participated in the driving simulator experiment. The average speed, SD of speed, acceleration, SD of acceleration and accelerator power were used to evaluate the TCDs through statistical analysis and factor analysis. The results indicate that tunnel TCDs do significantly affect the driving behavior, but too many tunnel TCDs may have a negative effect on tunnel safety. Factor analysis reveals that the tunnel retro-reflective arch (color), tunnel mural, tunnel retro-reflective arch (white) and tunnel delineation have a better effect on the tunnel safety. This study will lay a foundation for the installation and optimization of tunnel TCDs.
Keywords: highway tunnel; driving simulation; traffic control devices; driving behavior; effectiveness evaluation